What is downsampling and upsampling?

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Upsampling and downsampling define the method used for interpolation of the data on non-natural scales. E.g. resolution of Sentinel-2 data (R,G,B and NIR bands) is 10 meters but in some occasions you would want to look at the data with higher scale (e.g. at 1 m pixel resolution) or lower scale (e.g. 1000 m pixel resolution). 
A default option is "nearest neighbour", which is best for performance. "Bicubic" is often nicer  on higher scales.
Note that the data are always exactly the same - it is just the interpolation method.

An example of the NDVI image of the field: